Greenhouse News • the official newsletter of IEAGHG and its members • March March 2014 2015 •• Issue Issue 113 117 PCCC3 8th-11th September, Regina, Canada, by Siân Twinning, IEAGHG With Saskpower’s Boundary Dam Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) project fully commissioned and winning ‘Project of the year’ in the coal category of Power Engineering and Renewable Energy magazine, there has never been a better time to visit. IEAGHG are working with SaskPower to host the 3rd Post Combustion Capture Conference (PCCC3) in Regina, Canada which will include 2 days of plenary and technical sessions along with a full day’s reporting by SaskPower on the project and results after a year’s operation. $1.4 billion pays for experience that just can’t be found at lab and pilot scale and SaskPower are ready and willing to share with an openness that can only progress the technology and assist any group looking to implement CCS on an industrial scale. Of course, there is more going on in post combustion capture (PCC) than the headlinegrabbing Boundary Dam and we also plan to highlight this work. The US DOE will be PCCC3 Post Combustion Capture Conference 8 - 11th September 2015, Regina, Canada th presenting on key achievements from their capture R&D programme and on the latest work at the National Carbon Capture Centre (NCCC). We have invited Technology Centre Mongstad to update delegates following on from their presentations at PCCC2. Technology is always moving forward and, with this in mind, we are also looking to bring new research on the 2nd and 3rd generation PCC to the conference along with the most recent lab results and solvent development. The call for abstracts is now closed and we will announce the draft programme on the 26th May, however, now is the time to secure a place at the conference, with early bird registration at £400 but limited to the first 70 registrations (£550 once early bird places are filled) and, with student registrations at £300, we expect to see a high demand for places and look forward to welcoming you to Regina. In this issue IEAGHG Annual Review 2014 P3 In this issue CCS Seminar, Lisbon P3 Monitoring & Modelling Meeting P5 Financial Incentives for CCS P10 P8 1 Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org EPFL, Switzerland Welcomes 13th Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in 2016, by Dr. Roman Makhnenko, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) The 13th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference (GHGT) is awarded to Switzerland and will be hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne in November 2016. Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is an important component of the European Union’s policies and strategies for mitigating climate change, and has the potential to make an important contribution to Europe’s efforts to substantially decarbonise its electricity system and to achieve targets of greenhouse gas reduction. However, at present the economics of CCS are not viable and strong policy actions are needed urgently if the key next steps, in particular CCS demonstration plants and the first generation of commercial facilities, are to be realised. www.easac.eu/fileadmin/Reports/Easac_13_CCS_Web_ Complete.pdf Switzerland in particular has several point sources of industrial CO2 emissions, including oil refineries and cement factories, which could be amenable to disposal via geological sequestration. Also, combined-cycle gas-fired power plants are under discussion as a temporary solution to cover the energy gap that will arise when the oldest nuclear power plant is decommissioned in 2020. Even in a full hydrogen-based economy, CCS would be mandatory for any large concentrated CO2 emitters in the industrial and energy sectors. Recently, the Swiss Competence Center on Supply of Electricity (SCCER-SoE) was established to develop fundamental research and innovative solutions in the domains of deep geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. SCCER-SoE is focused on sustainable competence expansion, by establishing new professorships and research positions, building new technology platforms, laboratories and testing facilities, working with industry to design and implement Pilot and Demonstration programs, enabling the testing and installation of future technologies. www.sccer-soe.ch The Laboratory for Soil Mechanics (LMS) at the EPFL has a strong scientific background on topics such as renewable energy, environmental protection and greenhouse gas control technologies. Since its establishment in 1935, LMS has been contributing to 2 Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org fundamental and applied research activities following the major trends of the global development. The experimental and modelling resources are focused to understanding and predicting the environmental impact of future technologies in various sectors such as civil engineering and oil industry. The main goal of the research activities performed at LMS is to permanently transfer the scientific and technological developments to education and industry, thus, contributing to sustainable evolution of the society. The 13th Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT) that will be organised at the EPFL and is a perfect opportunity for the LMS to promote its innovative concepts related to greenhouse gas control and renewable energy technologies. We are hoping that hosting such a big event in Switzerland will help to enhance the participation of researchers and industrial partners from Europe and Middle East and will have a decisive impact on CCS in this regions and worldwide. Dr. Roman Makhnenko Laboratory of soil mechanics, geo-engineering and CO2 storage, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland http://lms.epfl.ch http://chaire-gaz-naturel.epfl.ch IEAGHG Annual Review 2014, by Becky Kemp, IEAGHG The IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme (IEAGHG) has now published its 2014 Annual Review. The Annual Review outlines the work undertaken and produced by the IEAGHG including the GHGT-12 conference, International Research Networks (namely the Combined Network Meeting and the 4th IEAGHG Social Research Network Meeting), information facilitation, information dissemination and social media, the 8th International Summer School, technical reports and reviews, information papers and also presentations made by members of staff at external meetings. “This year has been one that has at least seen progress on developing a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. There was a lot of activity in the run up to the COP20 in Lima, Peru.” Kelly Thambimuthu, Chairman of the IEAGHG Executive Committee. “As everyone knows, the GHGT conference series is one of our flagship activities and the latest in the series – GHGT-12 – was held in Austin, Texas in October 2014. Although attendance numbers were somewhat lower than we initially expected, we had a very respectable attendance of 1160 people from 35 countries.” John Gale, General Manager, IEAGHG. It includes a commentary from the Chairman of our Executive Committee, Kelly Thambimuthu and our General Manager, John Gale, reviews the year. For more information, and to view the Annual Review 2013, please visit: www.ieaghg.org/publications/general-publications/531annual-review-2014. Seminar on CCS in the Process Industries, Lisbon, Portugal, by John Gale, IEAGHG The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme has once again collaborated with another member of the IEA’s Energy Technology Network, IETS, to organise a joint workshop in Lisbon, Portugal in March 2015. IETS stand for the Industrial Energy-Related Technologies and Systems and this Implementing Agreement was founded in 2005 and focuses largely on waste heat integration in industry. This is the second time that IEAGHG and IETS have co-operated to host a workshop on CCS is industry. The first meeting was held last year in Japan and focused on the steel industry. This 2015 meeting was broader in that it covered the cement, oil refining, industrial hydrogen production and pulp and paper industries. The meeting covered a lot of ground and one conclusion that can be drawn is that there is a lot of going on with CCS implementation in industry globally. In reality, there are many more industrial CCS projects than ones in the power sector. The Port Arthur Project in Texas, USA, capturing CO2 from a steam methane reformer, has been operating for well over a year. Whereas the CO2 capture power project at Boundary Dam in Saskatchewan, Canada is the first of its kind and only started operating in October. Projects following on the H2 sector include the Quest Project in Canada and the Tomokomai project in Japan. In the cement sector, we have pilot projects underway in Norway, Germany and Taiwan. The steel sector has pilot projects in Japan and Sweden, as well as a demonstration project under construction in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The first Bio-CCS project, injecting 300,000 tonnes per year of CO2 into a deep saline aquifer, is the Decatur project in the USA which is in the process of increasing injection to 1 million tonnes per year. We should also not forget that the first CCS demonstration project was started in 1996, Sleipner, injecting CO2 from a natural gas processing plant. This was followed by similar projects like Snøhvit in the Barents Sea, In-Salah, Algeria and in the next year, the Gorgon project in Australia. So one cannot say that industry has been slow in implementing CCS. Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org 3 Industry in Europe is of course concerned about its competitiveness in a global market if it has to include the costs of CCS. Imparting additional costs through regulation could force companies to simply invest in production outside Europe with the attendant loss of jobs. However, it is fully acknowledged that if the EU is going to meet its recently announced emission reduction targets then industrial CCS is going to play a big role. It is also clear that we need some way to incentivise CCS in industry in Europe; the European Trading System (ETS) so far hasn’t delivered what the market perceives to be a good price for carbon. Equally, by excluding biomass emissions from the ETS, that excludes Bio-CCS as an option which is a policy disaster that should be addressed as soon as possible. We also need to develop the infrastructure that ties the projects together. No one project can afford to stand the costs of a pipeline network, but hopefully the new NER400 initiative may allow such up-front costs to be covered with EU support to allow projects to take advantage of reduced start-up costs. Further information, the agenda and presentations (coming soon) from the seminar are available at http://ieaghg.org/ccs-resources/technicalworkshops/19-ccs-resources/technical-workshops/523-ccs-in-processindustriesstate-of-the-art-and-future-opportunities. Air Products’ CCS facility in Port Arthur, Texas. Photograph courtesty of Brian Tafelmeyer 10th CO2GeoNet Open Forum: CO2 Storage – the Cornerstone of our Low Carbon Future, by Ceri J Vincent, CO2GeoNet-BGS Researchers from all over Europe and stakeholders from all over the world will gather in Venice from 11th - 13th May 2015 to present the latest science and technology in geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and to discuss the way forward for large scale deployment of CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS). This 3 day event is organised by CO2GeoNet – the European Network of Excellence on CO2 geological storage – in close collaboration with th the European Commission, the United States Venice; the location fo the 10 CO2GeoNet Open Forum Department of Energy (DoE) and the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA). This event is endorsed by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG), the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the Zero Emission Platform (ZEP). Presentations and discussions will highlight recent progress and consider hurdles that still need to be overcome for large scale deployment of CCS. Required actions for creating a favourable environment for CCS in Europe including re-shaping policy and the business case for CCS will be debated. Knowledge-sharing from large scale demonstration projects in North America and Europe will be facilitated. Cutting-edge results on CO2 storage research in Europe will be presented and a full day will be devoted to discuss what is needed for assuring CO2 storage capacity, which is of prime importance to any investment decision in CO2 capture, transport and storage. For further information and to register for the Open Forum and workshops, please visit the website: www.co2geonet.com/venice2015 4 Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org IEAGHG Monitoring Network and Modelling Network Meeting, Morgantown, WV, by James Craig and Tim Dixon, IEAGHG New IEAGHG Report: 2015-01 Monitoring Network and Modelling Network – Combined Meeting A combined Modelling and Monitoring networks meeting was hosted by the National Coal Research Center for Coal and Energy (NCRCCE), West Virginia University at Morgantown on 5th - 7th August 2014. The meeting brought over 60 delegates from eight countries including Australia, Canada, France Germany, Japan as well as the UK and USA. The three day meeting focussed on the theme of reducing uncertainty with the application and effectiveness of monitoring and modelling. The first day concentrated on the latest research on the ability to monitor CO2 in the overburden with the use of isotopes. There were also contributions from speakers on some of the challenges of monitoring CO2 from controlled release experiments into the atmosphere and into the sea where rapid dispersion can made reliable measurements difficult. Detailed appreciation of near surface sediment conditions, and background baseline monitoring, can help to show where CO2 emissions might occur. In a marine environment both seasonal and tidal conditions need to be taken into account. Changes to sediment pore fluid chemistry is a more sensitive parameter than open water detection. Some excellent examples of seismic monitoring were presented which demonstrated how effective the technique can be for monitoring plume migration, and in the case of Snøhvit, highlighting the impact of heterogeneity. The use of seismic is particularly well suited to offshore surveys where large areas can be covered relatively rapidly. The conclusions included that: • Pressure monitoring is providing a lot of information at many sites in terms of reservoir performance and overburden monitoring, and is likely to be an early indicator of leakage. • Microseismicity has distinct benefits. Data from current projects is reducing uncertainty by highlighting small scale Attendees of the Network Meeting • • • • structures within reservoirs and reducing uncertainty. The application of tracers may be possible to detect the origin of CO2 in the overburden, but there is uncertainty over their effectiveness. Recent advances in seismic using a P-cable configuration are providing high resolution on shallow overburden off the coast of Texas. Seismic surveys applied offshore can be cheaper than onshore per unit area. There is a need for benchmarking and more accurate commercial sensors for near-surface monitoring. The discussion on modelling opened the debate on the length of time that should be considered especially in the context of public perception. This was the first meeting where the impact of glaciation was raised. Successive ice sheets have retreated and advanced over the North Sea Basin, however, there is no evidence that oil and gas reservoirs have been compromised. Glacial processes are important for understanding changes to the sea floor such as glacial channels. During general discussion there was a consensus that models need to be continually reviewed to take account of site-specific conditions revealed by different monitoring techniques. The discussion also revealed that models can help to simulate different conditions such as pressure build up within reservoirs and fault behaviour under shear processes. The meeting concluded with a discussion between three storage site developers, two from the USA and one from the UK, and a representative from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Much of the discussion focussed on the Class VI regulations for CO2 injection and storage. There have recently been the first five permits issued (to ADM and to FutureGen2) which will set precedents for meeting the requirements. Applications under this regulation need to be science- Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org 5 based and well documented. Experience from both the US and UK shows that there have been, and continue to be, open and detailed dialogue between regulators, site developers and the research community. This was welcomed. Overall, it is clear from a number of projects around the world that monitoring data continues to improve to model predictions. Continual iteration between observed and predicted phenomena is essential and is proving effective. In the future improvements in real time continuous monitoring, using robust and reliable sensors, will be essential. The goal of reaching the right balance between cost and achieving the right level of sensitivity to meet regulatory requirements at a commercial scale will need to be addressed and developed. The Devonian / Helderberg Group (meeting field trip location) The meeting included a visit to the NETL facilities in Morgantown and a geological field trip to recently exposed rock formations relating to CO2 storage in the Central Appalachians. Copies of presentations are available from the IEAGHG website, and a report of the meeting is now available on the IEAGHG website. or please email email@example.com to request a copy. IEAGHG Member Activities: Norway What new CCS activities have been undertaken this month? Innovation in high-temperature CO2-capture; development of novel solid sorbents New innovative high-temperature sorbent from the projects CO2SORB will be of interest for future development of Calciumlooping technologies for both post and pre-combustion CO2 capture. Looping cycles for CO2 capture, using CaO-based sorbents represent an important new technology for the efficient separation of CO2 from combustion/gasification gases. The process is based on the reversible carbonation reaction of CaO at high temperature. The CaO-looping process shows the advantage to be used in two different high-temperature CO2-capture technologies: • Post-combustion CO2 capture for energy generation and industry processes • Pre-combustion CO2 capture for energy generation and/or hydrogen production Among the high temperature solid sorbents capable of reacting with CO2 at high temperature, natural CaO-based sorbents such as limestone and dolomite are considered to be the first candidates because of their low cost and large availability. However, they suffer from rapid decrease in CO2 uptake over multi- cycles of carbonation and sub-optimal mechanical properties leading to high attrition rates and material loss. To overcome those challenges, the development of synthetic sorbent agglomerates with a high resistance to attrition and high chemical stability has been the subject of many research programs worldwide. The overarching goal of the CO2SORB project was to develop new synthesis methods for Calcium-based synthetic sorbent using largely available minerals (anorthosite and limestone) and investigate promising agglomeration techniques for producing sorbent particles with improved mechanical and chemical stability for high-temperature CO2 capture. For more information: www.climit.no/no/Sider/Innovation-in-high-temperature-CO2-capture;-development-ofnovel-solid-sorbents-.aspx Environmental Decision Support for Innovative EcoDesign for CCS Future LCA assessments should include a broader approach of environmental perspectives and not solely climate change. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is as a key strategy in combating climate change. Deployment of CCS relates both to power generation and to CO2 emissions from other industrial sources. This project focuses on the former. Informed decision-making and design for CCS depends on a thorough assessment of the full range of related environmental impacts, not just climate change. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows such effects to be taken into account. 6 Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org For amine-based capture technologies, the amine degradation products were thought to be environmentally significant and work on characterising the emissions of these was necessary. More generally, for amines and for other technologies, the state-of-the-art in LCA for CCS was clearly incomplete in scope. In particular, toxic effects were identified as potentially significant but rarely included in LCA studies. The absolute focus on climate change carried a risk of problem-shifting i.e. reducing climate change at the expense of introducing other environmental problems. Toxicity modelling enabled the full range of potential impacts to be considered. An overall assessment of CCS technologies including a weighting of the range of environmental impacts with focus on CCS in the Nordic / Arctic region, has therefore been done. In addition a systematic assessment of CCS for power generation with both renewable and non-renewable sources has been performed. For more information: www.climit.no/no/Sider/Environmental-Decision-Support-for-Innovative-EcoDesign-for-CCS.aspx What new CCS research has been carried out this month? New projects and patents after pre-feasibility studies In 2013, CLIMIT-Demo established a programme of pre-feasibility study funding in order to progress more promising CCS concepts into pilot and demonstration projects. The programme will support activities that mature ideas and build sufficient support to apply for ordinary CLIMIT funds. The 2013 and 2014 announcements attracted applications from 20 research players and nine have received support so far. “The pre-feasibility study support scheme has been a success. We have received a number of good project ideas, some of which have already led to new applications to CLIMIT Demo and CLIMIT R&D. One even led to a patent,” says senior adviser Jørild Svalestuen in Gassnova and CLIMIT Demo. A number of researchers have dusted off promising ideas from the past which they never had the resources to develop into projects. Support amounts range from NOK 100,000 – 200,000. “One of the gratifying effects of the scheme is that we have received applications from completely new players. This is probably partly because the threshold for writing the application is much lower than for ordinary applications,” says Svalestuen. Recommend continuation of the programme Based on the experience in 2013 and 2014, and based on good feedback from the research communities, it is likely that the pre-feasibility study funding scheme will continue; however, it will first be subjected to a brief evaluation. “It has been great fun to see that we have helped “give birth” to the development of good ideas that can become good project applications. However, we also know that it may take several years before we can sketch out the long lines that lead from prefeasibility studies to full projects and finally, to success. All innovative processes require a great many ideas for each of the select few that ultimately prove to be successful,” says Svalestuen These organisations have received pre-feasibility study funding NILU CO2 capture using a sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate solution in water Teknova AS Condition monitoring and maintenance for cryogenic carbon dioxide capture Tel-Tek Reduction of CO2 capture costs Tel-Tek Solvent Management Tel-Tek High Mileage PCC solvents Sintef Energi AS New materials for low temperature CO2 capture Sintef Energi AS Clean Electricity Production from Offshore Natural Gas Sintef Energi AS Novel Reforming Concepts for Efficient Hydrogen and Electricity Production Sintef Energi AS CO2-free hydrogen export to Japan Article continues on the next page. Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org 7 Other comments or activities regarding CCS Nine new projects CLIMIT R&D issues major funding announcements every autumn. Nine very exciting R&D projects are being launched now as a result of last year’s application round. 86 million kroner was the amount available for allocation in CLIMIT R&D’s announcements in the autumn of 2014. This resulted in 37 applications for a whopping NOK 357 million. Following a thorough review process, CLIMIT’s programme board awarded funding to nine new projects in December 2014. These new projects are now being launched, amidst great expectations. The CLIMIT programme administration is confident that the new projects will contribute to more cost-effective CO2 capture and safer transport and storage of CO2. Eye of the needle While the vast majority were of very high quality, around 75 per cent of the applications were turned down. The CLIMIT programme has limited funding, which means that many important applications of high scientific quality were rejected, simply because there is just not enough money to fund all of the good projects. New announcement The nine new projects will receive support totalling NOK 77 million, which is NOK 9 million less than the announced available funding. One of the announced topics was CO2 storage combined with EOR (enhanced oil recovery). The CLIMIT programme board found the quality of the applications within this topic to be lacking, and therefore decided to hold NOK 9 million back for a separate announcement devoted exclusively to EOR. This new announcement will be published in February, and only applications within the field of CO2 storage combined with EOR will be accepted. A precondition for awards here will be strong cooperation with players from the US or Canada where CO2 to EOR has become a reality. Significant focus on storage Five of the nine new projects are within storage. Three of the projects deal with CO2 capture, and one project deals with CO2 transport. The reason for this significant focus on CO2 storage is the separate announcement issued in early 2014 for new CO2 capture concepts, while the reason behind just one new CO2 transport project is the most extensive R&D challenges associated with capture and storage, as compared with CO2 transport. The announcement also encouraged applications related to the environmental impact of CCS. Just one of the nine new projects is directly linked to environmental impact. An overall assessment of all of the applications’ relevance and scientific merit is the reason why more environmental projects are not launched. The Nine New Projects A concise presentation of the nine new projects is provided on the next page. 8 Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org Project No.: 243620 Title: Low Energy Penalty Solvents Project coordinator: Klaus-Joachim Jens, Telemark University College Project period: 2015-2017 Project type: Research project Summary: Post-combustion CO2 capture with solvents is the most mature technology for CO2 capture. However, this method has considerable potential for developing more effective solvents for significant reduction of energy loss. This project will study the properties of sorbents at the molecular level, e.g. through NMR, so that new, more energy-effective solvents can be designed. Project No.: 243755 Title: Permanent CO2 Storage in depleted gas fields combined with CO2 Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) Project coordinator: Idar Akervoll, SINTEF Petroleum research Project period: 2015-2018 Project type: Expertise development project for the business sector Summary: Injecting CO2 into gas fields will enable CO2 storage while simultaneously increasing gas production. However, there are certain knowledge gaps here as regards how CO2 will mix with the gas, which can affect both storage efficiency and gas production. The project will use physical experiments to contribute new reservoir models which are essential for realising CO2 storage combined with EGR. Project No.: 243736 Title: Innovative sorbents for the sorbent enhanced water-gas shift process Project coordinator: Bjørnar Arstad, SINTEF Materials and chemistry Project period: 2015-2018 Project type: Research project Summary: The project addresses pre-combustion CO2 capture and use of so-called sorbtion enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS). Development of new materials is a key part of the project, and new sorbents for this process will be developed based on a mechanical understanding of the function of sorbents in SEWGS. The project has the potential to develop considerably more cost-effective technology for pre-combustion CO2 capture as compared with the technology available today. Project No.: 243765 Title: Closing the gaps in CO2 well plugging Project coordinator: Malin Torsæter, SINTEF Petroleum research Project period: 2015-2017 Project type: Research project Summary: One of the major knowledge gaps within CO2 storage relates to how CO2 injection wells are to be plugged when the CO2 injection is complete. The project addresses this topic, with particular focus on which types of cement are most suitable for plugging CO2 wells. Project No.: 244055 Title: Atmospheric Chemistry of Amines and Related Compounds Project coordinator: Claus Nielsen, University of Oslo Project period: 2015-2017 Project type: Research project Summary: CO2 capture using amines can lead to minimal, but not insignificant, emissions of amine which can then react in the atmosphere to form nitroamines and nitrosamines. These are chemical compounds that can be hazardous to health. We know quite a lot about the atmospheric chemistry of these substances, but important knowledge gaps remain. This project will close vital knowledge gaps so that amines can be used for CO2 capture without HSE risk. Project No.: 244035 Title: CO2 Storage in the North Sea: Quantification of Uncertainties and Error Reduction (CONQUER) Project coordinator: Per Petterson, UNI Research Project period: 2015-2018 Project type: Research project Summary: There is a huge need for simulators that can carry out exact calculations of CO2 stores. Stochastic modelling will be used in this project, which is a new feature in simulation of CO2 stores. This will provide new comprehension of which parameters represent the greatest risk. The project will thus contribute to much better risk management of CO2 storage through development of a new and open source code. Project No.: 243624 Title: Corrosion and cross chemical reactions in pipelines transporting CO2 with impurities Project coordinator: Arne Dugstad, IFE Project period: 2015-2018 Project type: Expertise development project for the business sector Summary: When CO2 is transported in pipelines, impurities in the CO2 stream will have a major impact on corrosion and precipitation of solids. The objective of this project is to establish specifications for the volume of impurities that can be allowed for CO2 transport in pipelines. Project No.: 244049 Title: CO2 seal bypass Project coordinator: Alvar Braathen, University of Oslo Project period: 2015-2018 Project type: Research project Summary: This project addresses geological aspects of CO2 storage, and the objective is to gain new expertise on how to avoid leakage from CO2 stores. Project No.: 243729 Title: Simulation and Optimization of Large-Scale, Aquifer-wide Injection in the North Sea Project coordinator: Halvor Møll Nilsen, SINTEF IKT Project period: 2015-2017 Project type: Research project Summary: This project deals with modelling CO2 storage. New calculation methods will be implemented, and this will yield the potential for faster, more accurate CO2 storage simulators. New models developed in the project will be implemented as an open source code, freely available to the public. Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org 9 Financial Incentives for CCS: What Works and What Doesn’t, by Jeff Price, Bluewave Resources, LLC A new report published by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme evaluates the effectiveness of financial incentives for CCS1. For over two decades, governments around the world have enacted various types of financial incentives to encourage Large-Scale Integrated Projects (LSIPs) for Carbon Capture and Storage and lessons can be drawn from that experience. Financing of LSIPs is particularly challenging because such projects have high capital and operating costs, may entail significant financial, business and technical risks and must operate commercially, not just as research and development projects. The purpose of financial incentives is to stimulate investment in early projects at commercial scale in order to facilitate learning of design, construction and operational lessons and drive down the cost to a competitive level. The report describes the types of incentives that have been implemented for CCS LSIPs and evaluates their effectiveness for CCS projects that have become operational since 2008 or are in an advanced stage of development. It explains how three broad categories of incentives have been implemented by governments: 1. Carbon price incentives (carbon taxes, emissions trading, and mandatory requirements); 2. Transitional incentives (investment assistance and tax incentives); and 3. Contingent value incentives (liability reduction and asset creation). Most of the widely-used financial incentives have been transitional. A clear and predictable changeover from transitional to permanent carbon price incentives would, in itself, be perhaps the most effective incentive, but this has not yet been achieved in most jurisdictions. The report explains how effective incentives accommodate the stage-gate process of project development as well as project complexity. Incentives need to be calibrated to these attributes and may need to differ from incentives used for renewables. Importantly, project developers must see government financial incentives as predictably available for use throughout the planning, construction and operating periods during which they will be used for a project. 1 Jeffrey P. Price, “Effectiveness of Financial Incentives for Carbon Capture and Storage,” IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, December 19th, 2014 available for download from: http://ieaghg.org/publications/general-publications/525-effectivness-of-ccs-incentives. 10 Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org News from the IEA Clean Coal Centre, by Debo Adams, IEA CCC 7th IEA CCC Conference on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT2015) th 17 – 21st May 2015, Kraków, Poland CCT2015 is a leading international forum for research into clean coal technologies. The conference programme is available on the website, and includes: • high efficiency, low emissions plant • developments in carbon capture • air pollution control • low rank coal utilisation With strong international participation from both the coal power industry and research institutes, the conference represents an ideal platform for networking within the global coal research community. Conference Dinner & Power Plant Visit The conference dinner will be held in the Wieliczka Salt Mine, a UNESCO world heritage site near Kraków. Dating from the 13th century, the mine features numerous underground chambers with decorations elaborately carved from the rock salt walls, including a cathedral, chapels, and a subterranean lake. The dinner will be preceded by a tour of the mine. A visit to Łagisza power plant near Katowice takes place on the 21st May places are limited and will be allocated on a first come first served basis. This coal plant includes a 460 MW unit which became the first ever supercritical circulating fluidised bed boiler when commissioned in 2009, and remains the second largest of its kind in the world. Designed by Foster Wheeler, the unit represents a significant development for this important boiler technology, which has led to its increasing adoption for the utility power plant sector. Registration fee The registration fee is €600 until 20 April when it increases to €700. There is a discount for students (with proof of status). The visit to Łagisza power plant is €50 for all participants. Visit www. cct2015.org. 5th IEA CCC Workshop on Cofiring Biomass with Coal The workshop takes place at Drax power station in Yorkshire, UK on 16th - 17th September 2015. Registration is open and the deadline for submission of abstracts is 30th April. The workshop will cover all aspects of cofiring biomass with coal. All abstracts submitted will be considered, and, for example, we welcome abstracts on: • Biomass supply, sustainabiity and logistics • Pellets and torrefaction • Power plant conversion • Combustion and gasification The domes at Drax power station, Yorkshire • • • Issues with slagging and corrosion Ashes from cofiring Relevant policies and case studies Registration The registration fee is €350. The workshop is limited to 60 participants, so we recommend early registration and confirmation of your booking. Visit the website http://cofiring5. coalconferences.org Visit www.iea-coal.org for more information about the work of the IEA Clean Coal Centre. Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 • www.ieaghg.org 11 Conferences & Meetings This is a list of the key meetings IEAGHG are holding or contributing to throughout 2015. Full details will be posted on the networks and meetings pages of our website at www.ieaghg.org. If you have an event you would like to see listed here, please email the dates, information and details to: firstname.lastname@example.org. Please note that inclusion of events in this section is at the discretion of IEAGHG. 8th Monitoring Network Meeting 10th - 12th June 2015, San Francisco, USA 5th Social Research Network Meeting 6th July 2015, Cambridge, UK UK CCS Research Centre Workshop on CCS Governance and Ethics 7th July 2015, Cambridge, UK PCCC3 8th - 11th September 2015, Regina, Canada 6th High Temperature Solid Looping Cycles Network (HTSLCN) Meeting 1st - 2nd September 2015, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy 4th Conference on CO2 as Feedstock for Chemistry and Polymers 29th - 30th September 2015, Haus der Technik, Essen, Germany 5th Oxyfuel Network Meeting 27th - 30th October 2015, Wuhan, China International CCS Conference (organised by the OCTAVIUS Project) 17th - 19th November 2015, Rueil-Malmaison, France Greenhouse News ISSN 2047-2218 (Online) Greenhouse News is the newsletter of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG). IEAGHG is funded by member contributions from IEA member countries as well as other developed and developing countries and industrial organisations that have an interest in implementing technical options for GHG mitigation. A list of this membership can be found on the website. Greenhouse News provides information on worldwide developments in the field of GHG abatement and mitigation. It is published four times a year and is free of charge. Mailing address changes and requests for copies of this newsletter should be sent to the address below. For further information about IEAGHG and suggestions for articles, please email or write to the : 12 Greenhouse News No. 117 March 2015 •Office www.ieaghg.org IEAGHG Pure Offices Cheltenham Park Hatherley Lane Tel: +44 (0) 1242 802911 email@example.com www.ieaghg.org Cheltenham, Glos. GL51 6SH United Kingdom. Greenhouse News is an environmentally responsible publication. All efforts were made to consider the efficient use of resources in the production of this newsletter.
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